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Programmes studied on a part-time intermittent basis are not eligible. We monitor application numbers carefully to ensure we are able to accommodate all those who receive offers. It may therefore be necessary to close a programme earlier than the published deadlines. If this is the case we will place a four week warning notice on this page. Find out more about the general application process for postgraduate programmes:.
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Programme description. Online learning. Find out about studying online with Edinburgh Law School. Programme structure. Detailed information about the programme and your course options Please note the available choice of courses in any given year may change. Find out more about compulsory and optional courses We link to the latest information available. Learning outcomes. This programme is suitable to prepare students for advanced research. Career opportunities. The programmes are also an ideal platform for advanced research. Student testimonial. Entry requirements.
Programme entry requirements entry: A UK honours degree, or its international equivalent, in law, politics, medicine, medical humanities or life sciences. International qualifications Check whether your international qualifications meet our general entry requirements: Entry requirements by country English language requirements You must demonstrate a level of English language competency at a level that will enable you to succeed in your studies, regardless of your nationality or country of residence.
Degrees taught and assessed in English We also accept an undergraduate or postgraduate degree that has been taught and assessed in English in a majority English speaking country, as defined by UK Visas and Immigration: UKVI list of majority English speaking countries We also accept a degree that has been taught and assessed in English from a university on our list of approved universities in non-majority English speaking countries.
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Scholarships and funding. UK government and other external funding Other funding opportunities Search for scholarships and funding opportunities: Search for funding. Further information. Applying Select your programme and preferred start date to begin your application. Application deadlines. Programme start date Application deadline 13 January 12 November We monitor application numbers carefully to ensure we are able to accommodate all those who receive offers. References:      . References:   .
A patient should be educated about their diagnosis, treatment options, and the risks and benefits of those options before treatment. Obtaining patient consent is crucial because, without it, any medical procedure can represent an attempt to initiate harmful or offensive contact with a person, or threat to do so. Difficulties in obtaining consent should not delay life-saving procedures!
A physician must disclose all conflicts of interest to all affected parties and refer affected patients to an unbiased colleague whenever possible. References:  . References:  . Clinical science Physicians frequently encounter ethical dilemmas in all aspects of patient care. Core ethical principles Medical ethics is founded on a set of core principles.
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Autonomy Respect patients as individuals e. Provide the information and opportunity for patients to make their own decisions regarding their care e. Honor and respect patients' decisions regarding their choice to accept or decline care. In addition to having the right to refuse a diagnostic or therapeutic intervention, patients also have the right to refuse to receive information Beneficence Act in the best interest of the patient and advocate for the patient.
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May conflict with autonomy Nonmaleficence Avoid causing injury or suffering to patients May conflict with beneficence Justice Treat patients fairly and equitably. Equity is not the same as equality. Obligation to treat A physician is obligated to treat patients in a medical emergency in which failing to provide treatment would immediately endanger the patient's life. According to the Emergency Medical Treatment and Labor Act EMTALA , any hospital with an emergency department is required to screen for emergency medical conditions if requested and, if such a condition exists, provide treatment until that condition is stabilized.
Physicians are not obliged to treat a patient longitudinally and may end a doctor-patient relationship if they wish, as long as the patient or their surrogate decision maker is notified and has the ability e. The physician is also obligated to facilitate the transfer of care. Freedom to treat : Freedom to treat describes a legal legitimization, in which each person independent of educational level is permitted to perform medical treatments. Since the Freedom to Treat Act was abolished in , only physicians and certain authorized persons e. The surrogate decision-maker may be appointed by patients e.
The exact hierarchy of decision-making varies from state to state ;. The decision-maker should not let their own preferences influence decision-making. A patient may have expressed their wishes via: Oral advance directive : an incapacitated patient's prior oral statements regarding their preferences Living will written advance directive : a legal document in which patients describe their wishes regarding their healthcare e.
If the patient's most recent wish still cannot be determined, the wishes of the appropriate surrogate decision maker should ultimately be followed. Full disclosure Patients have the right to full medical disclosure A family does not have the right to ask a physician to withhold information from a patient with decision-making capacity and competence without good reason Exceptions: If the patient requests that the physician withholds information Therapeutic privilege : a physician determines that full disclosure would cause severe harm to the patient's severe psychological harm e.
There are several elements of an optimal error disclosure Clearly admit an error has occured State the course of events leading to and during the error, avoiding jargon Explain the consequences of the error, both immediate and long term if necessary Describe corrective steps and future preventative steps Express personal regret and apology Allow ample time for questions and continued dialogue If a physician believes that a colleague has committed an error in a patient's care, the physician should urge their colleague to report this error to the patient.
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If the colleague refuses, the physician should report this error via their hospital's or clinic's standard protocol. If the cause of an error is not immediately known, the physician should inform the patient and maintain contact while investigations are being carried out.
Research disclosure Patients must receive full disclosure prior to enrollment in a clinical trial All aspects of the experimental protocol i. End-of-life care There is a number of ethical dilemmas may arise in context of end-of-life care. The physician's role in ethical dilemmas is to facilitate communication e.
Physician-aided death Physician-assisted suicide When a physician supplies a patient with the means to end their own life e. Euthansia is illegal in the United States. Terminal sedation It is legal to adjust medical therapy accordingly to provide relief from pain and suffering in a patient with terminal illness, despite hastening the patient's dying process e.
Not an appropriate means of addressing primarily existential suffering, e. Principle of double effect : An ethical principle that legitimizes an act of good intent despite causing serious harm e. Do not resuscitate orders DNR orders Only refers to withholding cardiopulmonary resuscitation Withdrawal of care Patients with capacity or their surrogate decision-makers have the right to refuse any form of treatment at any time, even if that would result in that patient's death.
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Physicians should make an effort to understand the reasons behind the patient's decision for refusing treatment. There is no ethical difference between withholding care and withdrawing care at a later time Futile treatment A physician is not ethically obligated to provide treatment if it is considered futile inappropriate treatment , even if requested by the patient or surrogate. Treatment can be considered futile if: There is no evidence for the effectiveness of treatment If the intervention has previously failed If last-line therapy is failing If treatment will not fulfill the goals of care Organ and tissue donation Deceased donors Patients may declare themselves organ and tissue donors prior to death e.
Only one of these conditions is required, although they may coexist.
A physician is ethically and legally obliged to keep a patient's medical information including information disclosed by the patient to the doctor confidential , with the following exceptions : The patient directly requests the physician to share information with another party e. Depending on the disease, the patient should be encouraged to inform any third parties that may have been infected e. The physician does not, however, have the right to inform third parties without the patient's consent. The patient poses a danger to others e.